Firstly, as an advice to everyone new to HANA, please understand that you must choose a clear path of what you want to do in HANA. Do you wish to be a developer or an Admin? This site is aimed mostly towards teaching SAP HANA development and the admin parts that are good to know.
I say this because you try to dwell too deep into SLT which is not required since a developer usually requests tables to the admin team who then assigns it in a replicating state. If you are a developer, a high level overview of what SLT is should be enough.
Now, let’s speak about your questions.
1. Left outer join is the best join which can be used in terms of performance. Referential join is a better performing version of an inner join but should ideally never be used because it requires the referential integrity to be maintained which is dangerous territory to tread in. Check my tutorial on Join types where I’ve discussed this in detail.
2. There is a delta Queue monitor in SLT under the transaction ODQMON where you can analyze and recover lost data. As a developer, you do not need to get into all this.
3. Forget about attribute and analytical views. Only Calculation views are the path forward. AV and ANV can be considered obsolete.
4. SLT is just a server in between the source system and SAP HANA. It uses an RFC connection when connecting to SAP Sources and DB Connection to SAP HANA target. It also can perform minor transformations which is usually not used since calculations are preferred to be done in SAP HANA. Again, no need to get too deep into all this is you wish to be a HANA developer instead of an admin.
5. Of these 3, only CV should be used for development as per SAP’s path forward. All reporting tools can connect to it. Just that the connectivity types might differ. Keep checking the reporting section of this website where I am demonstrating how different reporting tools connect to CVs. There are already documents there but it might take another month to fully finish based on my current bandwidth.
6. HANA Sidecar is a scenario in HANA implementation wherein the client decides to keep their existing BI solution but only move one or more functional modules to SAP HANA. For example, if a client decides to move only the FI (Financie) module’s data models and subsequent reporting to be based on SAP HANA sources. This helps the client do a kind of proof of concept to check if it would provide a good return on investment or not.
7. SLT is usually always a separate server even though you can install it on an ECC system too but that is not recommended.
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Cynefin was used by its IBM developers in policy-making, product development, market creation, supply chain management , branding and customer relations .  Later uses include analysing the impact of religion on policymaking within the George W. Bush administration,  emergency management ,  network science and the military,  the management of food-chain risks,  homeland security in the United States,  agile software development ,  and policing the Occupy Movement in the United States.