Additionally, the theoretical divisions opened the way for an attack on Keynesian full-employment monetary and fiscal policies. American neo-Keynesians supported such policies on the pragmatic grounds that prices and wages were downwardly rigid in practice; for this reason they endorsed government policy interventions. Thus, it was not the theoretical benefits of flexibility that neo-Keynesians contested but rather the empirical possibility of price and nominal wage flexibility. Intellectually, this was a bastardization of Keynes’ message, and it provided a public policy opening for neoliberal economists to argue that economic policy should abandon targeting full employment and instead make wage flexibility a reality.
Kuhn himself did not consider the concept of paradigm as appropriate for the social sciences. He explains in his preface to The Structure of Scientific Revolutions that he developed the concept of paradigm precisely to distinguish the social from the natural sciences. While visiting the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences in 1958 and 1959, surrounded by social scientists, he observed that they were never in agreement about the nature of legitimate scientific problems and methods. He explains that he wrote this book precisely to show that there can never be any paradigms in the social sciences. Mattei Dogan , a French sociologist, in his article "Paradigms in the Social Sciences," develops Kuhn's original thesis that there are no paradigms at all in the social sciences since the concepts are polysemic , involving the deliberate mutual ignorance between scholars and the proliferation of schools in these disciplines. Dogan provides many examples of the non-existence of paradigms in the social sciences in his essay, particularly in sociology, political science and political anthropology.